Conceived and designed the experiments: Previous studies figures demonstrated variable influences of sexual hormonal states on female brain activation and the necessity to control for these in neuroimaging studies.
However, systematic investigations of these influences, figures those of hormonal contraceptives as compared to the physiological menstrual cycle are scarce. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure hemodynamic responses as an estimate of brain activation during three erotic experimental conditions of visual erotic stimulation: Plasma estrogen and progesterone levels were st thomas nude beach in all subjects.
No strong hormonally modulating effect was detected upon more direct and explicit stimulation viewing of videos or pictures with significant activations in cortical and subcortical brain regions previously linked to erotic stimulation consistent across hormonal levels and stimulation type.
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Upon less direct and less explicit stimulation expectationactivation patterns varied between the different hormonal conditions with various, predominantly frontal brain regions showing significant within- erotic between-group differences.
Activation in the precentral gyrus during the follicular phase figures the nC group was found elevated compared to the C group and figures correlated with estrogen levels.
From the results we conclude erotic effects of hormonal influences on figures activation during erotic stimulation are weak if stimulation is direct and explicit but that female sexual hormones may modulate more subtle erotic of sexual arousal and behaviour as involved in sexual expectation.
Results may provide a basis for future imaging studies on sexual processing in females, especially in the context of less erotic erotic stimulation.
Sexual function and dysfunction are modulated by various physical, psychological, social, and also pharmacological conditions.
Among these, it has been shown that changing hormonal levels in females, either physiologically during the menstrual cycle, after the menopause, or induced by oral contraceptives have a great impact .